DEFINITION (as applied in the context of ALTERFOR)*

Actor analysis Systematic analysis of the interests and power resources of the stakeholders in the CSAs and their national context.
Alternative FMM The FMM(s) that could be implemented in an CSA in the future at stand and/or landscape level. On landscape level, alternative FMM refers to new combinations of current or new stand level FMMs.
Behaviour In a general context (WP4), it refers to the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others. In a narrower WP3 context, see definition of "Behavioural matrix"
Behavioural matrix A matrix which represents the proportion of FMM for each forest owner type. Columns indicate forest management types while rows indicate forest owner types
Case Study Area (CSA) The specific local level landscape(s) chosen by each country partner of the project
Climate change model A model, that may be implemented within a DSS and is capable of capturing the effects of climate change
Coercion Altering behavior with a force, including the threat of force and even bluffing about force that does not really exist (WP4 definition)
Cultural ES Nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, e.g. a forest can provide areas for mountain biking, enhance tourism, landscape aesthetics (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005)
Current FMM The FMM(s) that are practiced in an CSA in 2016. 
Decision Support System (DSS) Forest planning software platform that is used to evaluate (manually or through descision making algorithms) ES trade-offs and synergies at the landscape level, for a range of scenarios. A term specific to Alterfor WP3.
Dominant information  Altering behavior of a subordinate (or weaker) actor, by supplying unverified information, e.g. based on prevailing ideologies or on superior expert knowledge (WP4 context).
Downscaling  Breaking the global (IIASA) scenario(s) down at a CSA level.
Ecosystem service (ES) The benefits people obtain from ecosystems (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the ALTERFOR context we imply that ES also include ecosystem goods, e.g. timber.
ES basket A combination of ecosystem services supplied. 
Forest Management Model, FMM In a general Alterfor context: a specific collection of concepts, values, perceptions, viewpoints, practices, techniques, instruments, rules and regulations (written or unwritten) shared by a group of people that form a particular vision of practicing forest management. In a narrower silvicultural context (WP1 & WP3): a silvicultural concept which as precise enough to be applied in practice. 
Forest management paradigm  The underlying principles of forestry, the totality of forest management ideas shared by dominant forestry stakeholders in the analysed landscape or country
Global scenarios Scenarios identified and hard, semi hard and soft data by IIASA (WP2) that  frame the modelling within each local CSA (WP2 definition).
Hard data in global scenarios  Direct metrics to be implemented into each DSS to model each scenario from IIASA, e.g. timber volume targets
Immaterial incentives Social or psychological leverages (e.g. social conventions, morals) that can be used to alter behaviour of actors (WP4 context)
Incentives Altering behavior of an actor through certain benefits (advantages) or  disfavours (disadvantages) (WP4 context).
Interests Action orientation, adhered to by individuals or groups, that designates the benefits the individual or group can receive from a certain object, such as a forest
Landscape level FMM Forest management approach at at landscape level that is formed by a certain vision of forest management and entails certain combination of FMMs at stand level.
Landscape  An area as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Forested landscape contains large number of forest stands and usually includes several management units (private estates and/or state forestry districts and/or other units of other ownership type). 
Local (prioritization) pathways For a CSA and under a scenario, a consistent set of FMMs, priorities, governance structures etc. 
Local case The case study conducted on the local CSA (surrounded by local and national context)
Local case coordinator The person responsible for coordinating the ALTERFOR project within each country and communicating with work package (WP) leaders and ES experts
Material incentives Money and all technical sources, e.g. machines, plants, food or support in labor, that can be used to alter behaviour of actors (WP4 context)
Minor FMM FMM that makes up a small proportion of the CSA but still exists within the CSA.
Owner types In WP3 context, it refers to certain behavioural categories of forest owners, consistent in their approaches to forest management
Policy instrument A deliberate structured effort by governors (those that are ruling) to solve a policy problem by modifying actions of the governed (those that are ruled) (Brukas and Sallnäs 2012)
Power Capability of an actor to influence other actors
Provisioning ES Products obtained from ecosystems, e.g. a forest can provide timber, berries, mushrooms (MEA 2005)
Regulating ES and Regulatory services Benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, e.g. a forest type can regulate the quality of water, climate (MEA 2005)
Scenarios Descriptions of future international and national conditions that take into account social-economic developments, climate change impact across the land use sectors, changing demand patterns, climate and mitigations reduction targets. They represent framework conditions for the CSA in terms of demand of commodities, price developments, and land use pressures.
Soft data Qualitative information provided to model scenarios whose exact metrics are local case-specific
Spatial equilibrium approach Harvesting targets based on region-specific balancing of supply with demand
Spatial specifity The spatial distribution of land-use within a CSA. For the purpose of ALTERFOR, good spatial specifity refers to spatial models that are implementable in DSS and enhance modelling of ES flows.
Stakeholder A collective and individual state or non-state actor from all governance levels (global, EU, national, subnational, local) that will be affected by forest management in an area and/or that can influence forest management in an area  (Includes forest owners)
Stand-level FMM forest management approach applied at the stand level, normally spanning a silvicultural regime  over decades (e.g. thinning regimes). 
Supporting ES Ecosystem services "that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services", e.g. the ability of a forest/land-use to support biodiversity/habitat for species (MEA 2005).
Upscaling A global or European level assessment of the impacts of the adaptation of FMM at national or CSA scale
Work package leaders, WPLs The leading individuals responsible for a specific discipline of work. They will communicate with, steer and summarise the reports from each local case. There are 4 scientific work packages (WP1-4) and two "supporting" work packages (WP5-6). In addition, the ES expert group resembles a WP, though formally lacking such a status.


Sources: Most of the definitions have been elaborated by Edwin Corrigan, often with reference to  Alterfor documents such as the project application, various guidelines provided by WPs, etc. They were subsequently commented by Alterfor coordinators, WP leaders and other representatives of the consortium. The final formulations rest on "negotiated perception" between Edwin and central coordinators of Alterfor.     

WPs: The definitions often mention WPs (1-4) that refer to Work Packages in the Alterfor project. In brief, Alterfor WPs stand for: WP1: stand level forest management models (FMMs); WP2: global analyses by the International Institute of Applied System Analysis (IIASA); WP3: landscape level FMMs, including their analyses in DSS; WP4: policy analysis with focus on raising the implementation capacity of alternative FMMs.         

Use of the dictionary:  The dictionary is primarily meant as a supporting tool for the members of the consortium. However, it also made publicly available to any interested parties. Members of the consortium are welcome to suggest modified definitions or to include new terms any time. In case of citing the glossary in publications, the following reference shall be used: ALTERFOR. 2017. Glossary. Alternative models and robust decision-making for future forest management (ALTERFOR). Hyperlink:

Download the ALTERFOR Glossary

Author: Edwin Corrigan (University College Dublin, Ireland), supported by the research partners in ALTERFOR.